Added: Yazmin Balducci - Date: 09.02.2022 08:55 - Views: 18848 - Clicks: 9244
Duringnine adult comics were investigated by the Directorate of Publications in South Africa, leading to a national sales ban on four publications. These included Love and Rockets, a comic which started publication inand is often seen as one of the innovators of the s "alternative comics" boom.
As these comments suggest, the obscenity of a text is not solely based upon the presence or absence of sexual depictions; it is rather a matter of context. This can be seen in many jurisdictions: the Obscene Publications Act in the UK and article of the New York Penal laws both state that the publications should be "taken as a whole. Another criticism from the Directorate suggests a further context in which sexual acts are understood: that of the narrative that surrounds them, and particularly narrative closure. The Directorate complain: "the reader is left dangling in the air Although the true nature of the Directorate's objections is impossible to determine, I wish to take this suggestive comment as a jumping-off point for considering the role of closure in the depiction of sex acts and sexual desire.
Without narrative closure, a sexual desire or act can lack meaning. As a result, it can be not Wife want casual sex Hernandez at all and become culturally invisible; or, as may be the case in this instance, it can be judged as incongruous, gratuitous and thus "obscene. The most common plot used to give context to sexual acts is the romance.
Romance plots traditionally depict a man and a woman moving into a relationship. This endpoint relationship is permanent and exclusive, and may also include cohabitation, children, and legal recognition through marriage. This plot is teleological: it depicts a purposeful development towards this validated endpoint and concludes when it is achieved. It depends heavily on closure to provide meaning for the interactions and sex acts it describes. The conclusion makes sense of the activities which come before — infatuations with other characters, fights, and rash behaviour are all judged by the knowledge that the characters eventually find love.
The protagonists are permitted to behave in morally questionable ways as long as it moves them closer to closure. Behaviour seen as persistent devotion in romance could be read as harassment in another genre. This romance narrative extends into the wider culture. Sex in Western mainstream culture is often judged in relation to this endpoint — how far does it move the participants towards this idealised relationship?
This goal turns "good sex" into a narrative act.
Sex acts that depart from this plot trajectory — which is non-monogamous, "casual" not leading to further sex or a relationshipnon-reproductive, or in a sexual relationship which is acknowledged to be non-permanent — are all often seen as lacking worth or transcendence. However, the romance is no longer the only plot to depict sexual desire. A relative newcomer in the field of sexual narrative is the lesbian and gay "coming out story.
Paul Robinson, in his survey of gay autobiography, defines the new genre by its new political emphasis: "in general the story of oppression remains at the margins of the earlier books; it is a central organising principle in none of them" The coming out story, he argues, rests on the drama of oppression and liberation.
Bonnie Zimmerman also states Wife want casual sex Hernandez stories of lesbian self-discovery develop a new political dimension from onwards: as well as self-recognition, the heroine must experience "an affirmation of [her] lesbianism to the outside world and a journey towards freedom" Hundreds of autobiographical and fictional s tell a similar tale — initial feelings of "difference," self-interrogation leading to a crisis, revelation and acceptance, coming out to friends or family, moving from isolation to community. As with romance, this narrative gives context and meaning to sex acts through a narrative framework.
This is a breakthrough for lesbian and gay identity: same-sex sex acts are saved from their cultural isolation, and embedded as elements in a story of personal development, seeking identity and establishing community. The coming out story is as teleological as the romance. In the coming out story, every stage of the plot is affected by the assumption that the protagonist is gay and should come to claim this identity.
Robinson notes the "conversion narrative" structure: texts "describe the writer's inexorable progress" towards "his new identity" For Zimmerman, "the lesbian coming out story takes its pilgrim on a progress towards wholeness" 38 ; "the hero must 'come home' to women" Biddy Martin comments that many coming out autobiographies "are tautological insofar as they describe a process of coming to know something that has always been true, a truth to which the author has returned.
Instead, sex is "good" when it moves the protagonist towards their identity — from self-doubt to self-knowledge, from loneliness to community. Margaretta Jolly sees the climax of the coming out story as the "integration of social and psychic parts," of inside and outside, of personal feeling and the public declaration. She notes "the emotional pull towards a teleological coherence and unity and how easily that becomes conventionalised' And as with the romance, this plot is not confined to books, films or other narrative products, but determines understandings of sex in wider culture.
Johnson, Coming Out: An Act of Love by Rob Eichberg indicate the extent to which this plot of self-discovery and declaration has become a key paradigm for gay identity. Several critics of fiction have noted that both of these plots have negative implications for their central characters.
Joanna Russ argued in that women characters are tethered to romance plots; they lack other narratives to explore and reflect their roles in society. Swanson have particularly condemned the role of closure in romance; the woman's plot is finished when her romance is complete and their brief period of narrative Wife want casual sex Hernandez is deemed to be over. Judith Roof in describes coming out stories as "folktales;" formulaic and serving a social purpose. But she believes that lesbian characters are confined by this restrictive cycle of plot and closure, much as Russ sees women characters confined to the romance plot: "Why is the story always the same?
There are differences between these critical positions: Russ' essay is a seminal example of the "Images of Women" school of criticism, an identity-based approach which assumes the relative stability of a group called "women" and calls for a Wife want casual sex Hernandez representation of them not, as Russ emphasises, descriptions of their lives, but "fictional myths growing out of their lives and told by themselves for themselves" .
Roof is writing from a post-identity queer perspective, one which is in part a reaction against identity politics. Roof does not believe that sexual identities entirely pre-exist their representations in culture. She argues that cultural plots play a large role in constructing lesbian identity, including the plots of "naturalized capitalism and heterosexuality' xvii. I will return to both identity politics and queer theory, and their roles in forming and critiquing the coming out story.
But despite their ideological divergence, Russ and Roof share an objection to the standardisation and repetition of a single plot, and particularly the teleological focus of that plot. To summarise my premises: an individual sex act relies, in part, on the narrative in which it is represented, and particularly narrative closure, to have meaning. But two of the key available narratives, for opposite-sex and same-sex sexual desire, have been criticised for confining their characters particularly women characters, and women who desire womenand having problematic political implications.
This conflict is directly relevant to the work of Jaime Hernandez in Love and Rocketsas his protagonists are two women in a sexual relationship. Can a sex act have meaning outside these narratives?
I focus on one storyline in Love and Rockets, which follows a group of Latina characters living in the urban American Southwest since the comic's inception. I explore how the mechanics of comics leave room for a new way of articulating sexual desire altogether, escaping the traditional narratives of romance and coming out.
The lead characters of Love and Rockets, Maggie and Hopey, sit on the curb after a day of events. Their activities all day have been dictated by common Hernandez themes: the need for transport and its breakdown, and the characters gatecrashing and being expelled from a party.
The narrative has drifted rather than been driven towards this final panel; this scene has the feeling more of an epilogue than of a climax. After this sexual and spatial wandering, the following panels appear at the close:. In terms of the romance narrative, the sex lacks certain elements. This scene does not suggest permanence; Maggie is ready to drive away afterwards, the two women are not cohabiting.
And they are discussing the desirability of other women: not necessarily monogamous behaviour, and certainly not common in traditional romance post-coital chat. The closing remarks, although they hint at one character's desire to live with the other the speaker is unclearare diverted into humour. The plot has not concluded, and thus given the sex a definitive meaning; sex has happened, and the plot is continuing. In terms of the coming out story, the scene is even more ambiguous. Neither participant discusses her identity or the meaning of their sexual desire and activity.
There is a suggestion that Maggie is avoiding her family or whoever is "home" in order to have same-sex sex — a standard coming out motif — but she then returns to them at the close, rather than feeling empowered to move away from them emotionally or physically. There is, as described, some discussion of living together, but this is not presented as an opportunity to express a gay identity which has been impossible in the family environment. So by either of these schemes, Maggie and Hopey's sex scene seems arbitrary and isolated; it is not marked as a narrative climax, and it takes up very little space.
Of course, to isolate one sex scene is to overemphasise its acontextual aspects. To do justice to the possibility that Maggie and Hopey are either coming out or falling in love, we have to look beyond the confines of this scene at the ongoing series — more than twenty years of publications. Are they moving towards a romance conclusion? Or could they be using the alternative narrative shape provided by the coming out story?
In romance terms, Maggie is involved with or pursuing men, and Hopey other women. Their non-monogamy, their times of separation and their independence seem to threaten the "old bogus dream" Maggie describes: that "Hopey and I would get married and live happily ever after" Flies on the Ceiling Hernandez does, however, play with romantic tension and expectations.
It is interesting that the recent volume Locasthe most comprehensive collection of these stories to date, ends on an episode that sees Maggie and Hopey reunited after their longest separation "Bob Richardson". Maggie rests her head on Hopey's shoulder, and tiny hearts surround the words "the end.
But the series continues after this reunion — to Hopey's cohabitation with another woman, and Maggie's marriage, divorce and subsequent flirtation with a stripper called Vivian. The collection contains a satisfying narrative arc, but gives a misleading sense of completion. The romance plot as an ideal often hurts Maggie. Heterosexual romance seems, for her, to be incompatible with living as a capable and independent woman. Maggie's Wife want casual sex Hernandez with heroic mechanic Rand Race makes her clumsy at work. Her relationship with Speedy Ortiz is similarly unsatisfying. Maggie shrewdly spots this as not the romantic message of her dreams, but an attempt by Speedy to disown the sexual complications and violence which he has helped Wife want casual sex Hernandez, and to draw on her strength "keep me going Only you can do it for me".
Her response: "Don't you dare put this one on me! Love and Rockets shows the negative fallout of the romance myth — Maggie longing for a transformative romance, but feeling ultimately unworthy of it and unable to achieve it. A single romantic declaration cannot transform Maggie's life. Speedy's declaration of love comes near the end of the plot, but rather than leading to a happy ending for him and Maggie, the next scene shows his death.
In relation to claiming a sexual label, neither verbally identifies herself as lesbian or bisexual. If anything, "punk" is the identity which allows them a degree of space in their gender and sexual roles when younger. Through this they find networks of friends and places where they can live; and "punk" provides material and conceptual space for socially dissident behaviour.
The Hernandez brothers have discussed in interviews their own relation to punk as an "outsider" subculture for young Latinos: "We were Mexicans who happened to like rock 'n' roll," states Jaime Hernandez. Hopey and Maggie's sexual identities are not "in the closet" or "out" but function as a form of open secret; Hopey's relatives and friends are aware of or guess at their relationship, and their interaction with revelation and concealment is playful; as in Hopey's lengthy interaction with her brother Joey:.
They alternate between accusation and withdrawal, denial and acknowledgement, until Joey suggests that she is "spoiling Maggie's chance to be with a real man. At this point, Hopey chases her brother with a staple gun. It is scenes such as this upon which any assessment of Hopey and Maggie's sexual identity should be considered. It's easy to say that Hopey is a lesbian and Maggie bisexual, but these exchanges typify the way in which information is never abstracted to this point. There are particular problems with searching for a coming out story in Love and Rockets.
This narrative has given unparalleled visibility and coherence to modern gay identity. But it achieves this prominence and coherence in part by becoming standardised, and the focus on one set of experiences and events can lead to problematic exclusions. Paul Robinson states of the male authors of the genre"I have Wife want casual sex Hernandez struck by the remarkable similarity of the stories they tell" Bonnie Zimmerman also acknowledges that there is an extraordinary degree of conformity between lesbian coming out stories, but states that this is not necessarily a disadvantage; " Such debates around representation and exclusion fit into a wider ideological shift between identity politics in the s and s, and "queer theory' and activism in the s.
The coming out story is a cornerstone of identity politics: as noted by Paul Robinson, the fight against homophobic oppression is the genre's new organising principle, and the motor for its plot. The new story is a vital tool in the process whereby same-sex sexual desire gains a voice, and cultural and political recognition, by re presenting a particular model of sexual identity. Many individuals gratefully identify with this identity. But queer theorists and activists have questioned the limits of identity politics and its strategies. They argue, following Foucault's influential analysis in The History of Sexuality: Volume Ithat sexual identity labels are not essential or cross-cultural.
Rather, they are socially constructed and deeply embedded in specific cultures. Thus rather than simply representing a pre-existing sexual identity group, identity politics actually assists in the construction of that identity. Gay and lesbian identity politics have contributed to what is included in, and excluded from, gay and lesbian identity.Wife want casual sex Hernandez
email: [email protected] - phone:(729) 967-4609 x 6620